Scarecrow is a Batman villain who uses drugs and psychological tactics to induce fear in his enemies. He is a former professor of psychology who does not generally commit crimes for profit but rather to fund what he refers to as his "research" into the effects of fear.
Scarecrow is a long-time Batman enemy, first appearing in World's Finest Comics #3 (1941). A co-creation of Bob Kane and Bill Finger, Scarecrow made only two appearances in the 1940s but was revived during the Silver Age and has been a prominent villain since that time.
Scarecrow has made several appearances in various animated series, including "Super Friends and Batman: The Animated Series" and was portrayed by Cillian Murphy in the 2005 film "Batman Begins" and 2008's "The Dark Knight."
The character Jonathan Crane was an awkward child, bullied for his appearance and his resemblance to Ichabod Crane. He grew to become a psychology professor obsessed with understanding the nature of fears and phobias. Upon being discharged after brandishing a gun in his classroom in an attempt to prove a point during an experiment, Crane adopted the persona of the Scarecrow.
Scarecrow seems to exist for the sole reason of inflicting fear in others, which he has done for years with the aid of his toxic fear gas. He has been a constant adversary to Batman and is foiled time and again because Batman has already faced his greatest fear: the loss of his parents. In recent years, Scarecrow stopped using his fear toxin after fellow Arkham Asylum inmates told him he was nothing without it. He now relies more on his traditional gimmicks, which prey upon peoples phobias.
The Scarecrow possesses no superhuman abilities, but his skill at evoking fear in victims suggests that he may have some control over their psyches.
Until recently, Scarecrow employed a hallucinogenic fear toxin which made victims live through their greatest fears.
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